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/. / _ / Although the Mughals were but one of a succession of Central
_/ ( Asian clans which descended upon the Indian plains between
( /?~,\ the 1(lth and 16th centuries, they differed from the others in
$`JAnZ?;k `) their choice of India as the focal point of their imperial ambi-
///Shahdum?} tions. Their building activity was prodigious. And as well as
f Lahorea housing the apparatus of the imperial administration, the build-
` _,?l / ings served to express the greatness of the imperial court
/?/ through their grandeur and sophistication, and were an ever-
/-? present reminder of imperial might and power The real
\_ strength of the Mughals, however, lay in their self~reliance and
? L confidence in themselves. They believed that they were the
rv architects of a new world, and that theirs was a golden age of
which they themselves were the fountainhead.
IS39 ROHTAS FORT This faith enabled them to experiment with impunity and inven-
ATTOCK FORT tiveness. Even their eclectieism was not an awe-inspired sub-
l5S6_ mission to a glorified past, but rather a magnanirnous accept-
ima AD LAHOREFORT ~ ance of tributes and new ideas which could be exploited to
SHAH DARA advantage in the service of the court. As Bnbtzr, the founder of
mn- SHEIKHUPURA the dynasty, states in his memoirs, considerable building was
1634 AD ` undertaken during the five years he spent in India. These were
lf?42 AD SHALAMAR BAGH mostly decorative gardens which, being of a secular nature,
{674 AD BADSHAHI MASHD have long disappearedrthrough neglect. Babar?s son and succes-
sor, Humayun, built little, having spent fifteen years in exile,
mostly in Persia, as a result of his conflict with Sher Shah Suri.
It was not until the reign of the third Mughal emperor, Akbar,
that the building activity of the Mughals really began in earnest.
Although Akbar built much, little of his work remains in Pakis-
tan. The grand tradition of architecture initiated by him was
continued and developed not by his son, Jahangir, who is
known more for his patronage of painting, but by his grandson
Shah Jahan. However, of the Mughal buildings in Pakistan, the
most monumental A the Badshahi Masjid ? was undertaken
by the last ofthe great Mughals, Aurangzeb.
The buildings produced under the patronage of the Mughals
belong to a single continuous tradition which can best be
appreciated if seen in its entirety. The forts at Attock and
Lahore are only two of the numerous fortresses established by
Akbar. The fort at Lahore contains a number of smaller build-
ings whose red sandstone carvings are perhaps the finest and
most imaginative example of the early period of transition from

52 the Hindu craft traditions to the formulation of a new concep? Ancnirecruarz in PAKISTAN
tion. These have survived only in fragments conveying nothing
of Akbar?s considerable architectural accomplishments, the
greatest of which is his capital city of Fatehpur Sikri, in India.
Similarly, Jahangir?s tomb at Shahdara must be seen together
with the tomb of I?timad~ud?Daula at Agra as a stage in the
transition from the sculpturesque red sandstone architecture
of Akbar to the delicate refinement of the white marble
architecture of Shah Jahan. The crisp geometric patterns in
white marble against the dark sandstone on both these tombs
mark a move away from the monochromatic towards a
polychromatic decorative treatment of external surfaces. The
delicate pietra dura floral designs on white marble in the same
buidings are a prelude to such exquisite and elegant treasures as
the Bangala or Naulakha in the Lahore Fort and the Taj Mahal
at Agra, and the arrangement of the tomb structure in the
setting of a large walled formal garden must be seen as part of
the Persian garden tradition first introduced in Humayun?s
Tomb In fact, the love of nature and a fondness for formal
gardens was characteristic of this Timurid family, and the Shala-
mar Garden in Lahore was only one ofthe many resorts built on
the Persian and Afghan pattern with running water, fountains
and parterres, of which the most delightful were those in
Also borrowed from the Turko-Persian cultures to the west was
the decorative system of design with floral and geometric pat-
terns brought to India earlier by the Pathans But while the
Persian and early Muslim designs maintained a taut formalism,
the Mughal eye for detail and direct observation of nature
brought to this system a degree of relaxed ease arid naturalism
which is both refreshing and unique. These flowers and leaves
are not mere abstractions, but particularised representations of
nature in frescoes, precious stones and coloured tiles.
Where the Mughals were incomparable was in the grand con-
ception of their designs on a truly monumental scale. Nor was
their monumentality dependant solely on sheer size. For even
in their largest enterprises, as, for instance, in the Shalamar
Gardens, the Badshahi Masjid, or in the tomb complex at
Shahdara, it is never grandiosity of scale which impresses, but
the sensitive cordination of every part making up the unified
orchestration of a grand scheme. The technical skill employed
in surface decoration and the Mughal builders? structural abili-
ties were no doubt phenomenal, but these by themselves do not
produce architecture. It is rather a complete integration of
every detail of decoration, structure, mass and space in the
service of a single paramount idea which produces the best
examples of Mughal architecture.
The Persian-Afghan building traditions which formed the basic
springboard of Mughal architecture were not new to Pakistan.
But the attempts of the early Muslim rulers to incorporate

4 1 53
_ ,.??ef~g;ry~.?'= ? ? Y-. ".-? ,?, V i,, r lugl w ???a_ J , _.'7.o nga; ,,??.??? _ {
,. n ;<:==?;1~=?ei~ . ,,... e ?? ?? e t V
= ?,?, wl -- ?'??*?1?=????4~??, ` ?.< .ll will "T-?2?rL? ? ?*?_ri?????-.,;?*?{ -;;;+4
?a??*_i,n? -_ .;L?,=r.~war? ? .. ??:~? ml , 'l~' ? ? " Fhwza ?, ?; z? _ , r.
*?*? ' i ,? :?? ,.?? t *?:`i?3?~.`Z;"#? ` ?? I ,` Ja ????-
. i ?.?`` -?.? >?*?$`=V ,.?.?` ` View ?=v{ ; { ,4; ? ,. ? " ? x ` , ,
..`` : _?;,,,; ???V . _?_, <_, _ J, ,____;__
g i ? ? ?=~;:._?g;;,., eg r?**??,E?e?=i%?? .; ?;;?;;5,__?=.,;;: ,,,.a.;??*%-
,?., ?. ' ~- Emi ,."7? .:;2I?&*;*??;T;>i??*i"? ? ???~:fl??*2%=s??i?Zli?
, _ ??,,. ?~.? .-.?,? ?
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.4 T__;g;;__ {:,5. ,, VJ%???,;;?], ,,,%ra V -ll,,_g&
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4I T/wmnlheurrampwl-rr???i#l?R?i?/? indigenous Indian forms and building crafts into their
M?? S'"5l'?? ""l?"" "}'i7"*""?;"V;?l? " architectural vocabulary were either timid and weak or forced
` V {IH IH VIEW O if IOM? IOVYI . . . .
mm if Punjab plum and contrived, never producing a harmonious unity of express-
4 2 SOME Dmwuur Rahim Bum em ion between the Persian and Indian forms. Only in the works of
{holy afi, grey nh/tn mnrzmry an I, gow: Sher Shah Suri do wc see the early flowering of a genuinely new
?r?1r<?~ milv H/[41*% the rr~~??/five ??/HHS Indian expression which in its sureness of purpose, its fresh
<1"???*?????*M~ ?l"?"?"" ???'"!"? Y'? vigour and grand conception, held for a while the promise of
Sim nulnnrv mchueciiuc The bvlmili . . . .
Gm gumdmg me m,,h_Wm K me hm greatness. His great fort at Rolitas, even in ruin, is among the
Iinmmr afar nemy mired gmaiwryr few reminders in Pakistan of Sher Shah Suri?s short interlude in
Built in 1539* entirely of a grcy ashlar masonry on the rolling
hills twelve miles northwest of Jheluin and enclosing a good
square mile of land, the sprawling complex of Rohtas presents
an example of military architecture comparable to Akbar?s fort
at Attock. The most impressive feature of the fort is its massive

54 wall which meanders and turns with the undulating contours of Aacnirecruns in PAKISTAN
the hill. With a perimeter of about three miles, the wall is in
places 30 to 40 feet thickz and 30 to 50 fcct high. It is furnished
with forty?eight heavy semi-circular bastions, twelve gates and
the usual battlements, shooting galleries and loop-holes re-
quired for its defence. Its utilitarian military character is im-
pressive, but the fort is not without a touch of delicacy and
refinement in such details as the simple rounded moulding
which runs along the top of the wall or the richly carved gate-
ways. Of these gates the Sohaili Gate guarding the soutwest
wall is in fair condition and is an exceptionally fine example of
the architecture of this period. It is a two-storeyed structure
with oriel windows and pavilions and several carved stone
inscriptions adorning the facades. The other gates are known
by the names of Kabuli, Badshahi, Langar Khani, Talaqi, Kha-
was Khani, Gatiali, Beriwala, Pipalwala and Shishij.
The fort divides into three main zones: the upper citadel in the
high ground of the northwest quadrant; the central zone which
now contains thc village of Rohtas; and the lower zone with
open fields, a buoli (step-well) and a water reservoir The
citadel area includes the Shahi Darwaza, Rajah Man Singh?s
haveli and the Shahi Masjid. and appears to have been reserved
for official residence. This sector is separated from the rest of
the fort by a subsidiary inner fortification wall.
The haveli of Rajah Man Singh in the inner sanctuary or antim-
kot is believed to have been built by this Hindu Rajput prince of
Akbar?s court. The present double-storeyed building consists of
a square room on the ground floor with another room on the
first floor and is surmounted by a bulbous dome with lotus
cresting. The gateways of the fort contain as many as 24 inscrip-
tions carved in stone. Of these, sixteen are to be found on the
Shishi Gate. Carved mostly in the na/csh script, they are mainly
verses from the Quran but some also give dates and other
historical information about the fort
The magnificent fort on the Indus at Attock in the North West
Frontier Province is a fine representation of the military
architecture of Akbar. Its stone walls rhythmically dotted with
battlements and machicolations march in step with the con- W __ Q5 .*;.4,*
tours of the hill down to the river, ending in an elaborate gate _ __ ??.., , .,,,_
. . , , . . . . $;?,?a,_-g~;
on the river tront. "lhis fort is still in use by the army, and is ??= _.-Q_, ??V? LL r
therefore not easily open to inspection. The student of
architecture must tum to the more accessible fort at Lahore. QE?h$?7;??=ii'
Architecture under the Mughals, developing in the service of t, .,, v_~?? - " n` _
the emperors, produced its finest examples at the seat of impe- i { q
rial power. This seat fluctuated between Lahore and the Indian ? . ?; Q g ?
cities of Delhi, Agra and Fatehpur Sikri Thus Lahore alone in _ I Q { _
Pakistan falls truly within the mainstream of the grand tradition A n raf; i l_ `
of Mughal architecture. Strategieally placed at the conjunction A f]Q _"{_? . gi
of the roads to Kabul, Multan, Kashmir and Delhi, Lahore was
convenient both as a station for the court on longer journeys 43 K???*?*l *****1 G*"*l??*? Attock

44 ss
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4 ? `
.-5 ut, $$7*1. - 1 YJ <**?5?.-iz ;? .m`?~ ? Q . =t I ???
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Q?5-?i*?T*?Ts?.???.. ?_ ._-?-a??i;??4r is-xt --. ? ,"
.. 4 4
44 GerieruIvicw,A1lock rmi and as 21 centre of overnment. The buildin s erected at this
8 E
4 5 Among 1/nc/cw bumrmgx 0fAI<hnr provincial capital by Akbar, J ahangir, Shah J ahan and Aurang-
l" [???4'5444** 44*64*44 K??h4?#*4dG4?d4?? 444 zeb as well as the numerous constructions b the overnors and
Azwck Ozle v `i rl I ? h y g ?
i." " IE mm ??{?? ml ? courtiers associatd with the Mughals, form a complete chronicle
Begum Semi and the nmgmficiem Fur: . . . .
of the architectural activities ofthe Mughals. The largest collec-
tion of Mughal buildings in Lahore are located in the fort.
The early history ofthe Lahore Fort is still obscure. However,
five distinct eriods, the British, Sikh, Mu hal, Ghaznavid and
. . P . g _ .
Hindu, have been established by excavations on the site.
Amongst the earliest structural remains encountered was a
twelve-foot high mud brick wall, probably representing the mud

5" me , ,_ e i ?. ssss s .. _ , - eo ;4? 2 . ii if 57
? ~? i s ? rl g Q v_ l;. .?A of . i 5*% be gy , pW,B W _" , i= ??ig gl U U U U U lgjliillitllill.:iilllTEh@1ll ll hi lll M
sti ? Ei?E?H?*@h 'l@?%??!? ?' i iii i iu ilih 'i$%i;??'W@ i:iT r`i ? ii ir i;i? n ?;?'@v_?;Tii ?i' il`l'.Yi' T' ` 'il
lh] iifs.ihii;:ii%ibihinhkih?iihinailiiiiEliaiiQiihiiiiaaiihiheiiiihimihioiahiihihiah t in i? hi;n~iil~e?~?. ;i= ;i_
A _ , L_ . J ?_ . ?46nnn-47 Elci*?livniim1plnii? Ltihcw also added a number of minor structures such as the mar-
lg I 6. E- ??''`' ??" sl..??.> " " JA_?A `QT F"' ble Athdara Pavilion outside the Shish Mahal and several
r ` A -_ -~?~- tvcivnvc csmsi l upper storeys such as those over the Shish Mahal, Mai Jindarfs
N _?__ BBQ p ll hnveli and Kharak Singh?s Palace. Besides these constructions
I _ ` ___:,_.;: i ?;_ ,,X,_mi,l ss the Sikh rulers were responsible for much ofthe destruction of
.,. J the Mughal edifices, stripping many of them of their marble and
* ` `i - ? ix w??is?g[___A__ semi-precious stones. Even more catastrophic was the occupa-
F , ? ? i, E ??? tion of the fort by the British in 1846. In order to demilitarise
; ? _,, . .. l I -_ VE the fort they demolished the south fortifications and replaced
i { _` i 5 _ i them with wide ceremonial steps and terraces. Modern build-
A ms" V 1. ' ings mushroomed all over the fort hand older buildings were
le P`; b brutalised with alterations and additions to make them into
~ ,, gf) bjimit; I i barracks, hospitals, godowns and so forth. The lawns in front of
/ ? i the Diwan-i-Am were covered with barracks; the Diwan?i?Am
x / ujfifiggixr. l ?itself was given a verandah on the south and converted into a
~ _, ____ i ? hospital; similar verandahs were added to many of the buildings
,. O , A U on Jahangir?s Quadrangle, and its central court, including the
ri QN T l tank, was filled up to make a tennis court The northeast tower
',_;2.? ?"?" ' i%"??? '??? l of this uadrangle and the Diwan-i-Khas were converted into
lr ? ` ` ;;__( Jo churchez, the Royal Hammam became a kitchen, and the Lal
-i ..., M ..?tr i rr.ri... eeee s is ? so Bun s lm hn
E ??mm'B"M`??' can .. i. ,.i . .i. .;. ,.1. ... ,,.,... MASTI GATE The main entrance into the fort was through the
Masti or Masjidi Gate. This gate derives its name from its
brick fort which was sacked by Sultan ivinhmuii ohnzni in 1021. location facing thc Mcrynni Zsinsni Mssiicl or nicsqiic- lt, is
Historical references indicate that in the course ofthe following (l?f?llll?ll lJY il Pall of $?l'lll?O9lag9ll?ll llasllolls ?(ll?llPl???d Wllll
five centuries the fort was successively destroyed and rebuilt or balll?m?lll$? lcobhclcs and ll"l?lClll99lall9ll$? Tlwle was Pmbilllly
repaired four or tive times over, until seme time before 1556, s_scccn<l ssto on thc wcsii lstcr ioplccccl by Anisnscclfs Alani-
the Mughal emperor Akbar finally demolished the mud fort and gm Gall?
rebuilt it in burnt brick4. Before this reconstruction the mud _
fort and mound appears to have been a rectangle, twice as long lAl"lANGlR`$ QUADRANGLE Bcgllll by Akbaly tllls qusdmnglc
as it was wide, lying south ofthe present oiwhn-i-Am. Akbar wss complcicd by Jshsnsii in l6l7el8? Thicc sidcs sic tskcn up
extended this area northwards by building up the low-lying area by lllllldlllgs lll the lylllcal Akball styloi Whcicas lilllilllgllis Owll
on it system of basements and fortified the whcie area with ci contribution is rcprcscntcd by his lchwchsch tlitoisllyi room of
massive brick wait ami semi-ciicniei hasticms. But except ter chcsnisl oislccpins iooin Although its front is n British iscon-
the eastern wall, the fortification wall of Akbar has been drasti- struction, it probably conforms with the original and illustrates
cally transformed by successive modifications, extensions and thosimplo and snsicrc chcrsclsi of thc buildings of lnhcnsins
demolitions by the Mughal princes themselves and the later P?l'l9d?
Sikh and British l?l?lS? MAKTAB knnivn <ci.i;nk?s Room) The same undiluted applica-
As the River Ravi shifted its course, a second fortification wall tion of the Persian brick building tradition characterises the
was added on the north by Ranjit Singh (1799). The Sikh ruler Maktab Khana in the Moti Masjid Courtyard. In plan too, the

48 Jahurxgifs Qimdmng!r.Tne Quu?!? Maktah Khana follows faithfully the Persian models of clois- 59
??"!;?*?_?;{~? mm 0/"?"=? bm ??**"'?P?? ?f tered courts, with simple-pointed arches forming an arcade on
the ml mgslyle of/Wha" ChY"?"?'.??d the four sides, each punctuated in the centre by a taller arch
by carved red xrvzdsronr wuh animal _
motfr and ii trabrnirdfurnr ajmminir- miuklng Yhc ewan OY cmmmc gat?WaY?
"'"' The name and function ascribed to the Maktab Khana are
" 9 Kh"??bg"h* !?n""'~'" ni Q??d'?"g'? controversial. The term maktab khuna is a corruption of maka-
Junangnsnwn mnnzammnmmaqmuz- , I , ,, . h ld. .
mglm ,UpH,_.m(,d,,y me Khwalwh 0, nb khuna, a clerk s room ,whic wou imply that it served as
sleeping mma an entrance gate where the munartrs (clerks) sat recording
4 [mma, H Mama Kima and Mak. cntry into the palace. However, a Persian inscription above its
mh K*?_??? CGW! Time buf/dinxt vt principle entrance records the construction of this building
J?h?Y?g" Z", {hc F""_??? "{ [nc "??"??? under the supervision of Ma?mur Khan in l717?18, and calls it
Pmxiuziiriiditmn 0/bnrvkbuzldings bun-:} h D I Kh l .] h . . h U .d fJ'h . ,,g
on a [imma wml, whim and ram t S au at nnd"? n nngnnt ? ren ence O A nngn ?
H rtcrtiizn WALL Jahang1r?s love for nature was matched by an
4.12 Cvnzmenccd/2yJa/rang}:in1624, l, _ . h f _. . d.u t. I d d h.
[hePiururcWulIbeIaw1neSnaIiBuijwux Winn lfmifnellnt @#*50 Prnlmng an _? nntm lon- n CC ? is
mrnplelrrl hy shun luhan in 1632 li is most significant architectural undertaking in the Lahore Fort,
~?<>?? wi ~<?r?{?? in Vw [wv ?i~??i??f???? the Picture Wall, is more an exercise in the two-dimensional art
W of IHMSMHOTI ih"'] nw mmf M")"` of illustration than the three dimensional art of building. Com-
.vwnu/ arr of building I/ie nmlgfr range
from [Iain! and gennwnic dexigns to ,_ vvv__ , . :,,.=??e?? ?,V_<? p??f5;f *>
aninma, nimmn and ntviiizaaingwn ? av _ _i_ :V'__ ; -`,_ ; , i_.
? . ?.?? ?? ?? " ` - - -??~==?~i:? ,??r;gL;?,;i. is ??a?*`??*? ?. 4.:;
H i"` *12, I .,?... L ???? _ "
?*""T?`? ~ 1..IfZ ..., .;t? ; gtrz ?
? ?* ?T"?. .????? r "/ In in . a_r;,;?."""= ? ~=:?? ??- ? ?
~ .? N E
. ZE ? ?i .,.. ?
? ., .?; " -5 " ' ??
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. . ., .~t?e?re S ~. l ri~?? ;,-?? ???v" ???r?? iT`
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,! *6, ..= ` ? , " .">i L ?

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60 menced by Jahangir in the 19th year of his reign, 1624~25, the ARCHITECTURE IN i>A1<isrAN
Picture Wall was completed by Shah Jahan in l631~32. Starting
from and including the Shah Burj Gate, this wall extends north-
ward and, turning the corner below the Shah Burj, includes a
good portion of the north wall of the fort, making a total
decorated surface area of sonic 8000 square yards. This area is
divided into rectangular and arched panels defined by subtly
recessed planes, and filled in with vividly coloured glazed-tile
mosaics. The motifs range from floral and geometric designs to
animal, human and mythical figures. The human and animal
figures usually depict sporting and other events at the Mughal
court such as elephant, camel and hull fights and a game of
chuugan (polo), often with an amazing realism in the treatment
of such details as dress and casual gestures.
The period of transition from the monochromatic red sandstone
of Akbar and the simple plastered brick structures of J ahangir
to the white marble buildings of Shah Jahan is represented by
Nur Jahan?s buildings at Shahdera rather than any structures in
the fort. At the fort itself, the period of Jahangir is followed by
the full flowering of Mughal architecture as represented by the
buildings of Shah Jahan. These include the Moti Masjid, the
Khwabgah-i?Shahjahan, Diwan?i?Khas, I-Iammam-i-Shahi,
Khilwat Khana, Shah Burj, Hathi Paer and the Shah Burj Gate.
Mori MASJID (PEARL MOSOUE) An earlier mosque on the site of
the Moti Masjid is said to have been built by Jahangir as a
private chapel serving the emperiofs own residence, the Daulat
Khana-i-Jahangiri, also called the Maktab Khana. Be that as it
may, the Moti Masjid as it now stands was built by Shah Jahan
in about 1654 and is the earliest of three such mosques built
during Mughal rule. These mosques are called moti or "pearl"
mosques, because of their pcarl?like marble veneer and small
size. Of the other two, one lies at Agra, built by Shah Jahan in
1654, and the other at Delhi, built by Aurangzeb in 1662.
The Moti Masjid in the Lahore Fort is entered through a small
chamber in the south-western corner of the Moti Masjid Cour-
tyard. At the entrance a sharp turn to the right leads into the
north-east corner of the diminutive court ofthe mosque, which
has an atmosphere of striking calm and serenity. The effect of
quiet seclusion is created by the mosque?s compact size, un-
assuming proportions and purity of lines, as well as by the
pearly whiteness of its surfaces. Its impact is made all the more
powerful by the element of surprise created by the asymmetrical
arrangement of its entrance.
The narrow rectangular courtyard is barely as wide and not
much deeper than the main prayer chamber. There is a shallow
rectangular niche in its northern wall and another curved niche
in the eastern wall. Opposite this niche, the western side is
closed by the prayer chamber itself. In elevation this chamber
consists of a high, pointed central arch flanked on each side by
two engrailed arches. Each of these five bays is delineated with
rounded mouldings which frame the arches. Above them is a
low parapet with delicately coloured pietra dum work. The roof

IMPERIAL MuoriALs line is punctuated by three domes on high circular drums and 61
constrictcd necks. Internally the space is divided by engrailed
arches, and the alternate bays between the circular domes are
roofed by rectangular qalamdani vaults
Kl~lWAl?l(3AH-l-SHAHJAHANI (SIIAH iAriAN?s sLi2Ei?rNo Room)
While proceeding from Lahore to Kashmir, Shah Jahan
ordered the construction of this khwabgah in 1633 and en-
trusted the work to Ilmud~Din ?? titled Wazir Khan, Viceroy of
the Punjab. Located opposite the Diwan-i-Khas, it occupies the
southern end of Shah 1ahan?s quadrangle, and consists of a row
of five rooms. Deprived of its decorative veneer it is of little
architectural interest except for the white marble jalis (screens)
in its openings on the south and traces of some fine stucco
tracery work inlaid with pieces of mirror. The frescoes of Radha
and Krishna in the central room and that of a Sikh Prince with
his wife on a jamb of the western-most room are of the Sikh
by Shah Jahan in 1645, It is a graceful pavilion, 53 feet by 51
feet, built entirely in white marble. Placed upon a raised terrace
and open all round, this pavilion has a remarkable quality of
lightness and airiness. Its roof and wide projecting eaves are
raised on slender marble columns, and the openings are span-
4 ??? i J f 3 V 4 I4
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4 I3 Mnti Mnxjid, Lahore Fort The _ __ `=
Msn Murjram the Luhure rz?i,1?mi?1>y { __ _ `? A .
S/mh Juhtm izi[654, i.r1h?m?!mnr>frhree ? ? Q ? V - ?' ij;
such masqm-1>?z1/by me Mughals ? {Qi; -~_ ` A , `i``Z ,
4 M rnW???r.1</tar W mt nan Uyspa ~ r ? ?.?? ? Q . .- . . ` ?~.? -4.i; ~.r
W ned by thin slabs of marble cut in the shape of engrailed arches,
Its parapet is decorated with pierm dum work and the openings
in its northern side are filled in with skillfully-cut marble
screens. Its floor of marble intarsia of different colours laid in
geometrical patterns with its centre occupied by a delightful
small cup-shaped cistern inlaid with pietru dum work is a fine
example of the refined architecture of Shah Jahan. The marble
slabs of the ceiling are suspended by means of beams passing
through their abutting ends. In l904?5, the whole building, then
used as a military church, was taken to pieces and recon-
LAL Bum (RED PAVILION) Oetagonal in plan, this summer pavi-
lion lies adjacent to Diwan-i-Khas and forms the northwest
corner of Shah Jahan?s Quadrangle. It is a part of the north wall

62 of the Fort decorated with beautiful tile mosaic and filigree Aizcnirecrukia in PAKISTAN
work. The pavilion was built between 1617-31. It is in three
storeys, the top?most being a Sikh addition while the rest,
together with the basement chamber, are the works of Jahangir
and Shah Jahan. The present name of this building derives from
the Sikh period. The interior freseoes are also mostly from the
Sikh period. On the middle level a cement concrete iioor from
the British period has been recently removed to expose the
central basin and the channels on the sides with their fountains.
This building still retains, in its northeast staircase, a piece of
original honey-combed cornicc remarkably decorated in gilt
and paint work which shows how richly and lavishly this whole
pavilion was originally embellished.
HAMMAM-1-sr1Ai-i raowtt Barn) Built by Shah Jahan in about
1633, the Royal Bath lies immediately west of Shah Jahan?s
khwubguh and is now almost in ruins. It is in the Turkish bath
style comprising three stages: [uma kan (dressing room), nirn
garm (warm bath), and garm (hot bath). The centre of the first
stage is occupied by a small water tank finished with variegated
marble, and on its four corners there were originally single
baths or private rooms out of which only the two on the south-
west and northwest corners now exist. In the southwestern
corner room, the original tessellated marble flooring is still
intact, and here can also be seem the terracotta water supply
pipes built in the wall. The heating arrangements are at the
western end where the Baitul Khala (toilet) is also located.
There are indications that the whole of this bath was originally
paved with marble, removed during the Sikh period.
kr-111.wAr KHANA (Room or souruoe) Built by Shah Jahan in
1633, it was also called Ghusl Khana. Its court is divided into
two parts: the front or southern portion and the private and
personal residence of the Emperor. Mughal Emperors did not
generally reside in the Harem proper, but in a separate court
adjacent to it. The only surviving building of this court is a
pavilion in the middle on the north side. Its plinth and door
frames are of marble and it has a curvilinear roof. In front of the
pavilion is a water tank, 29 feet square and 4 feet deep. The rest
of the buildings of this entire court have disappeared, leaving
only the foundations which indicate that both portions of this
court were originally surrounded on all sides by a row of rooms
intended for guards and other retainers. This part of the court is
also connected on its east and west with a number of basements
(rah khamzs) and at least one cold chamber (sard khunu). Along
with other uses, the basements were necessary for security. In
the southwest corner is a ruined mosque originally built in red
sandstone and marble, and specially meant for the ladies of the
court. Thus, this court, the residence of the Emperor, was quite
self sufficient.
PAIEN iaAon(1.owE1z GARDEN) The chief characteristic of such
a garden, for the ladies of the Harem, was the provision of a
number of paved paths or walks. Fragrant flowers, cypresses
and dwarf fruit trees such as small oranges were planted. The
middle of the garden is occupied by a spacious platform built in

iMi>1aRiAi. MUGHAi.s fine cut brickwork with a water basin in the centre. On either 63
side of this platform there are two squares, each divided into
four small lawns with a water basin in the centre of each. Each
of these side squares was originally surrounded by a red sand?
stone railing.
KALA Boar (st.Aci< PAVILION) This bmj or summer pavilion
built between 1617-31, which is similar in many respects to the
Lal Burj described above. occupies the northwest corner of
Khilwat Khana. Little remains of its original form, particularly
inside. lts present name appears to be from a later period. The
top storey is an addition from Sikh times, while the floors and
some of the roofs are from the British period. To this period
also, when the Burj was used as a liquor bar, belongs the entire
interior plaster, covering the paintings and other decorations
from the Mughal and Sikh periods. The eaves (chajja) of this as
well as other Burjs are constructed in interlockcd brick-work
supporting the projections without any reinforcement.
siiAii Bum GATE (rowers PAVILION GATE) Immediately behind
the postern, in the northwest corner of the fort stands thc
magnificent Shah Burj Gate. The inscription over this gate
records the completion of the Shah Burj in 1631-32 the 4th
reignal year of Shah Jahan, under the supervision of Abdul
Karim, who is mentioned as Ma?mur Khan in the inscription
over Makatib Khana. This gate was the private entrance of the
Mughals, used exclusively by royalty, and leads to Shah Burj
(Shish Mahal), the Harem portion of the fort. Externally it is
decorated with glazed tile mosaics in delicate floral designs and
forms an important element of the Picture Wall.
HATHI PAER (ELEPHANT PATH) Entering the fort through the
Shah Burj Gate and turning sharply to the left, one passes
under a high arch to ascend by way of a flight of giant steps
called Hathi Paer (literally, Elephant?s Feet) or Elephant Path.
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64 This assa c, startin from Hathi Pol Gate and endin at the ARCHITECTURE its i>Ai<1sTAN
ruined entrance of the outer courtyard of Shish Mahal, was
built by Shah Jahan in 1631-32, lt is a staircase with fifty?eight
low and broad ste s constructed of small countr bricks co-
P ? Y
vered with lime plaster, and meant for elephants carrying royal-
ty to and from the palace. Flanking the staircase on either side
are high panelled walls decorated with imitation brickwork in
red, white and green, The western wall is provided with niches
both in thc lower and u >er store s wherein used to stand the
l Y
khwaja sara (eunuch) and the naqib (announcer) to announce
the goings an comings of royalty. 'l`hc upper gallery was the
ghulam gardish (servant?s gallery), connected through a door 4 '6 ?"?"?"?'{i* wxh ?{?h"'> L""?{"
, . I h' ' d 4 Frm Shah Rui], built by .$hnh Jahan in
with the Shish Ma al, and probably serve as a passage to the 1631 WX me ,m(,cm,e Omg Hmmm
royal kitchens to the south. The high panelled walls on the Ther-hmma Ummm; wma alangihe
west and south collapsed in 1841 when Sher Singh besieged the ****0 P?l"?ll??[ (Mw immfvfiag ul u vw-
fort (held by Rani Charid Kaur, wife of Kharak Singh), and ;;;;?;;?;;Z"{;;;?i:;;,'Z;"je?;;
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can still be seen on thc walls. populur name ofShisIi Mahal
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IMPERIAL MUGI-IAI.s sI?IAI?I BURJ (KlN(i?S PAVILION) Passing through a series of outer 65
courts one climbs a ramp to enter the southeast corner of the
Shah Burj or Shish Mahal Courtyard. Built by Shah Jahan in
1631-32, this was the residence of the Empress when she stayed
at Lahore. This courtyard and the several buildings within it
probably come closest to matching the popular image of the
royal Mughal harem in all its glittering splendour.
The court itself is an elegantly proportioned square, with an
intimacy and grace appropriate to the residential quarters of the
Empress. The south and east walls of the court are formed by
long narrow galleries or loggias running the length of these
sides. In the centre of the southern gallery is a small ubshar
(cascade) with a tiny cistern, built in variegated shades of
marble arranged in a pattern, causing gentle ripples as the water
flowers over them. The water from this cascade flows through a
channel in the floor of the courtyard to a large shallow pool.
Three other channels, one from each side, cross the floor ofthe
court, dividing it into four symmetrical quarters. The centre of
the pool is occupied by a low square platform connected to the
edge of the pool by a little causeway. The entire floor of the
court and the pool is paved with a variety of marbles, making a
curving floral pattern in the pool and a more rigid geometric
design around the edges.
In the centre of the western side of the court is a quaint little
marble pavilion with a double curved roof after the fashion of a
Bengali bamboo hut, from which it derives its name Bangla.
Popularly called nuulakha, or the edifice which cost nine lakhs
(900,000 rupees), it is best known for its extremely delicate
pietra dum work, wrought in semi-precious stones such as
agate, jade, gold stone and lapis-lazuli. The beehive-shaped
capitals of the pilasters are made up of miniature niches (mu?
qarnas), measuring 2% inches by 1% inches. A single floral
pattern in one of these niches is formed by as many as 102
minute inlaid pieces of semi-precious stone.
The main hall or Shish Mahal opens out on the northern side of
the court, flanked on either side by double-storeyed galleries,
and enclosed on its north by a row of smaller rooms. The main
*32 "??Z"<< F-'?'/I钧??Es '*?Z{ Tlidgf `1`;?"f 2'?"'E'??? ?? ji' )@Q_ I ,, >/? :_ ,5;* ? o ly, .~

??'. .r.?.
R? t 1 +5* 1:%**
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{ ?i; ? . ? gi I
,,M,.,Wm.....-;.??;;.a?.?a?$?. r 3
4 F7 Naulakhn, Lahore Fort On the ? I _ ,_ __ ,_`_ g _; _ I _ ,<-,_...
western sideisu marble puvilion culled if I ? - ` f" ` . .
Bangla became ofrhe double curved roof {_ _ , ;__r 2 N T7 ____ I ` I ..?wr:?r?r
ufler the fashion of the bamboo hum uf i."**'*;{"???": J ?a? : :??"j"*=? :
Bengal This pavilion ir aLm pulled ?;_ H M g W _ V
Nuulukha, andisbestkuvwnfor i1rex~ .. _ ? . _ " r_ A I . I ? I
trcmely delicate pierru dum work i . ? (V- ~ . ? ` l , ? , 4.;}

IMPERIAL MUGI-IAI.s sI?IAI?I BURJ (KlN(i?S PAVILION) Passing through a series of outer 65
courts one climbs a ramp to enter the southeast corner of the
Shah Burj or Shish Mahal Courtyard. Built by Shah Jahan in
1631-32, this was the residence of the Empress when she stayed
at Lahore. This courtyard and the several buildings within it
probably come closest to matching the popular image of the
royal Mughal harem in all its glittering splendour.
The court itself is an elegantly proportioned square, with an
intimacy and grace appropriate to the residential quarters of the
Empress. The south and east walls of the court are formed by
long narrow galleries or loggias running the length of these
sides. In the centre of the southern gallery is a small ubshar
(cascade) with a tiny cistern, built in variegated shades of
marble arranged in a pattern, causing gentle ripples as the water
flowers over them. The water from this cascade flows through a
channel in the floor of the courtyard to a large shallow pool.
Three other channels, one from each side, cross the floor ofthe
court, dividing it into four symmetrical quarters. The centre of
the pool is occupied by a low square platform connected to the
edge of the pool by a little causeway. The entire floor of the
court and the pool is paved with a variety of marbles, making a
curving floral pattern in the pool and a more rigid geometric
design around the edges.
In the centre of the western side of the court is a quaint little
marble pavilion with a double curved roof after the fashion of a
Bengali bamboo hut, from which it derives its name Bangla.
Popularly called nuulakha, or the edifice which cost nine lakhs
(900,000 rupees), it is best known for its extremely delicate
pietra dum work, wrought in semi-precious stones such as
agate, jade, gold stone and lapis-lazuli. The beehive-shaped
capitals of the pilasters are made up of miniature niches (mu?
qarnas), measuring 2% inches by 1% inches. A single floral
pattern in one of these niches is formed by as many as 102
minute inlaid pieces of semi-precious stone.
The main hall or Shish Mahal opens out on the northern side of
the court, flanked on either side by double-storeyed galleries,
and enclosed on its north by a row of smaller rooms. The main
*32 "??Z"<< F-'?'/I钧??Es '*?Z{ Tlidgf `1`;?"f 2'?"'E'??? ?? ji' )@Q_ I ,, >/? :_ ,5;* ? o ly, .~

??'. .r.?.
R? t 1 +5* 1:%**
L ' ?i?i`i ?.?.r .
? V n r I ?=? ,<. `?...1*i? ??.?=;*'2I5szi???z..
{ ?i; ? . ? gi I
,,M,.,Wm.....-;.??;;.a?.?a?$?. r 3
4 F7 Naulakhn, Lahore Fort On the ? I _ ,_ __ ,_`_ g _; _ I _ ,<-,_...
western sideisu marble puvilion culled if I ? - ` f" ` . .
Bangla became ofrhe double curved roof {_ _ , ;__r 2 N T7 ____ I ` I ..?wr:?r?r
ufler the fashion of the bamboo hum uf i."**'*;{"???": J ?a? : :??"j"*=? :
Bengal This pavilion ir aLm pulled ?;_ H M g W _ V
Nuulukha, andisbestkuvwnfor i1rex~ .. _ ? . _ " r_ A I . I ? I
trcmely delicate pierru dum work i . ? (V- ~ . ? ` l , ? , 4.;}

66 decorative feature of this hall and some of the smaller rooms is Aucuiracruiua in mxisran
the convex glass mosaic workmanship (aina kuri) with munab-
but kari or stucco tracery, and gilt work. The spandrels of the
arches and the bases of the double columns carrying multi-
cusped arches are decorated with pietra dura work,?while the
openings overlooking the river are filled in with superbly cut
marble julis (screens).
DIWAN-I-AM (HALL or PUBLIC AUDIENCE) In 1628, the first year
of his reign, Shah Jahan ordered the construction of the Diwan-
i-Am in the shape of a hall of forty pillars, to replace the
awnings erected in front of the jhamka to shelter the nobles in
the time of his father. The work was entrusted to Asaf Khan
and was completed in three years.
On the death of Kharak Singh and his son Nau Nihal Singh on
the same day in 1841, Chand Kaur, the widow of Kharak Singh,
assumed power. Thereupon Sher Singh, a son of Ranjit Singh,
besieged and bombarded the fort with light guns placed on the
top of the high minarets of the Badshahi Masjid. As a result, it
appears, the Diwan-i-Am collapsed and had to be reconstructed
by the British immediately after their occupation of the fort in
Standing on a large rectangular platform, the hall measures
about 187 feet by 60 feet with a height of 34 feet. It occupies the
centre of the fort with a great open court on its south. Its
pointed arches with tie?rods and roof are all of the British
period, but the brick-on-edge pavement appears to be of the
Sikh period. The hall in its present condition, therefore, is but a
skeleton of what was in the Mughal period During its recon-
struction the red sandstone pillars were erected at random so
that in a number of cases the bases and their shafts do not
correspond with each other.
AIAMGIRI GATE The only building by Aurangzeb in the fort was
probably constructed along with the Badshahi Masjid in 1674.
This impressive monumental gateway, facing the Badshahi
Masjid, is flanked by two semi-circular bastions, boldly fluted
and decorated with lotus petal designs at the base. The side
bastions are surmounted by elegant domed towers or pavilions
and the corners by guldustas (vases). The gateway is
approached from the Huzuri Bagh by a ramp. It is robust and
massive in construction and expressed the military character of
its founder.
The Shahdara complex is based on three rectangular walled
gardens adjacent to each other and aligned on a common axis.
The Akbari Serai occupies the central court, while the two
flanking gardens each contain a tomb ? the Emperor Jahan-
gir?s on the east and his brother-in-law Asif Jah?s on the west. A
third tomb, that of Nur Jahan, lies outside the walls of the
gardens and does not appear to form an integral part of the
main garden complex.

i . ?A 67
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4l8 The Ammgm Gmc war built by Akizkiu semi Jahangir?s Tomb is approached through a
l;4u$rrg2eZ1??M?;' ceretngnrfvtrtingcg filly gpagigug semi (inn) which, contrary to its name, was n0t built by
r E IZMII H LIIII (I S ll I . . .
Xizsqgzn { X Akbar6. The open courtyard is flanked on all sides by a raised
terrace, on which are built rows of small cells A 180 in all with a
verandah and a common open passage running in front of them.
The court and flanking rows of cells are enclosed within four
hi h walls; the centre of each wall contains a statel ewan or
gateway after the typical Persian model. The south portal serves
as the main entrance. The east leads to the main garden court of
Jahangir?s Tomb, the west serves as a mehrab for a mosque,
with Asif Jah?s Tomb beyond, and the north portal completes
the symmetry of the design. The semi served as an inn for
travellcrs and also accommodated the establishment looking
after thc tomb7.
MASIID smut The mosque within the semi at Shahdara belongs
to the period of Islam Shah Suri (c.954 A.H.). The front facade
is covered with red stone with marble design workmanship,
while the niches generally have been decorated with marble
calligraphic work. The domes above each of the three arched
entrances have fairly long necks and are double internallyg.
JAHANGIR?S Tome The Emperor Jahangir was buried according
to his last wish at Lahore, in Nur Jahan's old pleasure garden
known as Dilkusha Garden. Nur Jahan designed his tomb,

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_ rw . ~ w {.4 .,_? wg j _ say; ;:,~?s ?*?? .,,;_
?` gz ? yi;. ? '? 420 Jammgm Tamb, amen mr-
? N ` M, F; ?? L Q, $@:3 .,_ M ance Crisp geometric patterns in wlurc
ig . ik ` . mdfbld (/H drlrk JY1/Idl?I0r1? Illdfk lll? {UNIV
?w wi _ ijE:;?;w __=);{{ a ing pain! away from manu-chromatic to-
` L,. J ?;g;;_; ` I I wardsapalychmmaliczreumienrafcxzer-
?? ? l?= ? `? ii: ???~*: rm1.w;aa~.i
taking as her model the tomb 0f I?timad?ud-Daula, her parents?
burial place at Agrag.
The tomb is a single storey structure on a square plan. The
avi ionise is curious mo es in ei com are wi e
l tlf ly dt hht dthth
grand scale of its setting and the dominating four corner
minarets. Indeed, it is reported originally to have had a second
cenotaph open to the sky and occupying the centre of the raised
platform on the spacious roof of the tomb. Structural evidence
shows that this platform was decorated with marble railings
which, together with the cenotaph, have vanishedm.
The main pavilion itself is 267 feet long and built in red
sandstone richly inlaid with white marble decorative motifs. It
stands in a 55-acre garden divided into sixteen sub-quarters by
pathways and water channels. The surfaces of the pavilion are
decorated with fresco paintings, piezru dum and marble motifs

impgrrmr MUGHALS such as aftabu (cwer), qab (fruit dish) and gulab push (rose 69
water sprinkler) incised in red standstone. The four corner
minarets are crowned with white marble cupolas and rise in five
stages nearly 100 feet above the ground. These minarets,
decorated with variegated marble zigzag patterns, are the
forerunners of the refined Mughal octagonal minarets. The
marble cenotaph is embelished with delicate and colourful
pictra dura work and engraved with the ninety-nine attributes of
God, the Emperor?s name and the date of his death.
Asir i<nAN?s roms Mirza Abdul Hasan, entitled Asif Khan,
was the brother of Empress Nur Jahan and father of Arjumand
Banu Begum, the lady of the Taj at Agra. In the 8th year of
Shah Jahan?s reign he was made Khan?i?Khanan and
Commander?in~Chief, and a year later, Governor of Lahore.
Asif Khan died in 1641 and his tomb was erected by Shah
Jahan, his son-in?law. It took four years to build and was
completed at a cost of three lakh (300,000) rupeesu.
The tomb is an octagonal structure with a high bulbous dome. It
stands on an eight-sided podium, originally of red standstone,
in the midst of a spacious garden once set with reservoirs,
fountains and walks. The entire area is enclosed by a brick wall
finished with lime plaster and is approached through an
imposing gate on the south.
Originally, the floor of the tomb was a mosaic of various stones.
The inner dado was in white marble, and the outer in river?bed
stones (sang?e-ubri) and other variegated stones. It also
contained some beautiful enamelled mosaic tilework, traces of
which remain. During the reign of Ranjit Singh, the dome and
the interior were stripped of all their marble facings.
Tor/iu or NUR JAHAN Nur Jahan, whose real name was Meherun
Nisa Begum, was the daughter of Mirza Ghias Baig entitled
I?timad-ud-Daula, .lahangir`s prime minister. She was first
married to Ali Quli Khan, surnamed Sher Khan, a great
landowner at Bourdwan in Bengal. In 1611 she married
J ahangir, becoming his Empress and sharing all responsibilities
in the administration of the Empire. Surviving Jahangir by
eighteen years, she died in 1645 and was buried in this
mausoleum which she herself built.
Standing on a square platform, the tomb measures 134 feet on
each side and is just over 19 feet high. It is now a shattered
brickwork core deprived of all its decorative veneer, which was
of red sandstone inlaid with white marble. The interior was
originally finished with glazed lime plaster bearing beautiful
floral fresco paintings, traces of which still exist. The present
rough brick floor belongs to the Sikh period; the original floor
was presumably of marble.
A notable building enterprise of Jahangir?s is the hunting com?
plex at Sheikhupura, some twenty?eight miles west of Lahore,
with its huge fish tank, elaborate water pavilion and towering

70 minur, perpetuating the memory of a favourite deer. The archi? Aizcinrecrune rn i>A1<1srAN
tecture of these buildings is in the stark Jahangiri style and the
drama of their spatial organisation is heightened by their setting
in a natural park. The fort at Sheikhupura is also attributed to
Jahangir but its history and original form are uncertain.
nrimw MINAR (DEER rowmt) Four miles west of the present city
of Sheikhupura, this complex was built under the order of the
Emperor Jahangir in 1620, and alterations and renovations
were carried out by Shah Jahan in 1634*2. The tank itself is a
rectangle of nearly 882 feet by 741 feet. In the middle of each
side is a wide ramp, while in each corner there is a square
pavilion with flights of steps down to the water on two sides. In
the middle of the tank itself is an octagonal twelve?opening
pavilion (barudari) known as the Daulat Khana. This is a
three?storeyed structure built in local bricks and lime mortar.
The lower storey is massive, with an octagonal chamber in the
centre surrounded by eight smaller rooms linked by narrow
passages. The second storey is more airy with the central
chamber surrounded by an open verandah. The third storey
consists of a simple octagonal pavilion over the central
chamber, with a domed roof and projecting eaves.
The Daulat Khana is approached by a narrow causeway and
gate. On the west is the minur for which the resort is known.
The minar is tapered towards the top as it rises in six stages. The
lowest two are octagonal in plan, the stage above has twenty-
four sides, and the upper three stages are circular or cylindrical.
The third, fourth and fifth stages have small square holes, 4;; Plun ShaIumurBugh
arranged in neat rows, whose purpose remains a mystery. Simi- 4 22 ,,,,4 4 23 [,,,;,4 0,,, ;,, may a, [he
larly unexplained is the absence of a crowning canopy, pavilion cvmrrmrid cf Shah Ju/run. rhr Garden
or cupola on top, giving the tower an unfinished appearance.
racer are divided by canals wizh goals
SHALAMAR BAGH and fountains The garden provided
The Shalamar Bagh or Garden occupies about forty acres of g;g;n(,,{;,Migefjzfi?rwm
land and was laid out in 1642, at the command of Emperor Shah pavilion: um: summer mmm.
}. First terrace + Sccvrid Third tergage .;;,1 U
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0 A0 /60 140 320 ' MO I"-??`???:`

72 V I ? . Aizcnirzcruaiz in PAKISTAN
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Jahan after the plan ofthe Royal Gardens in Kashmir. A canal,
Shah Nahar, later known as the Hansli Canal was constructed
to bring the waters of the Ravi from Rajpur, the present
Madhupur, at a distance of more than a hundred miles. This
canal was the combined work of Ali Mardan Khan, the well-
known canal engineer of Shah Jahan, and Mulla Alaulmulk
The garden consists of three terraces, rising about fifteen feet at
each level to the south. The original entrance was in the north
at the lowest terrace, as is customary in Mughal gardens, so that
the cascades faced the visitor in his upward progress, revealing
new delights as each terrace was surmounted. The uppermost
terrace of the garden is called fumh lmkhsh (pleasure giving)
and thc middle-and lower-most terraces combined are named
faiz bakhsh (bountiful). The first and third terraces are char-
baghs of similar proportion and design, with canals crossing at
right angles. However, the most spectacular is the central ter-
race. lts great reservoir contains one hundred and fifty?two
fountains, and in the centre is a marble platform reached by a
narrow causeway. From the southern pavilion the water flows
over a marble cascade or chudar, at thc bottom of which,
overhanging the water, is the Emperor?s throne. A double-
paved path, with a flower parterre, runs round the whole reser-
The multitude of chini-khanas or pigeon holes beneath the
cascades are said to have been decked with golden vases of
flowers by day and camphorated wax candles at night. Many of
the garden?s estimated four hundred and fifty fountains can still
be seen spouting high jets of water in the canals and tanks.
The original planting of the garden included fruit trees, ordered
by Shah Jahan himself from Kabul and Kandhar and continuous
flower beds with plane trees and aspens at intervals. Under the
trees were grass platforms for reclining comfortably in the

iiviriaiziprt MUGHALS In addition to being a place for royal recreation, the garden 73
provided accommodation for the Emperor on visits to Lahore.
For this purpose it was furnished with a number of pavilions and
summer houses. In the uppermost terrace, the present main
entrance was originally the aramgah (rest room) of Shah Jahan.
The building on the east in the same terrace, now known as the
Naqqar Kltana, was originally the Jher0ktz?i-Duulut Khana?i?
Khas-0-Am (thc Window of the Hall of Special and Common
Audience)l3, and that on the west was the residence of the
Empress. On the east, in the middle terrace, there is a hummum
(bath) with hot and cold baths and a dressing room, originally
decorated with pietra dum work.?Besides, there are six corner
towers surmounted by domes and four pavilions in the second
terrace, In the third terrace, facing up the central axis of the
garden, was the hall of private audience. The marble and agate
work of these pavilions was stripped by the Sikhs to decorate
the Ram Bagh and Golden Temple at Amritsar, and the present
pavilions are mostly restorations in brick and plaster.
The great royal Badshahi Masjid built in 1674 adjacent to the
Lahore Fort, is the largest in area of the subcontinent. In its
general concept this mosque is based on the Jami Masjid out-
side the fort at Delhi. Unlike the Delhi mosque (which has
three entrances) it has a single main entrance, and its four
minarets on the corners of the court are tall and prominent
while those marking the corners of the prayer chamber are
relatively short. Like its predecessor at Delhi, the Badshahi
Masjid is elevated on a high platform. It is approached from the
cast cnd by a flight of twenty-two steps which form three sides
of a pyramid leading up to a platform in front of the main
gateway. The gateway itself is relatively modest in comparison
with those of the Jami Masjid. It is a two?storeyed structure with
a high central arch. The flanking bays on either side have a pair
of smaller arched niches placed vertically one above the other.
At the corners of the square gateway are four minarets. The
external surfaces are divided into panels and are sparingly
carved in low relief, The material throughout is red standstone
with white marble veins, embellished by an occasional rosette.
A pair of slender shafts are attached to the sides of the slightly
projecting central bay and terminate above the roof with white
marble orbs placed in full-blown lotuses. Between these shafts
and above the central arch is an elaborate array of twelve
merlons which carry above them an open arcade topped by
eleven white marble gumbadis (miniature solid domes). Be-
tween this balustrade and each corner minaret is an airy kiosk
with projecting eaves and square white marble domes. The four
corner minarets have projecting square platforms surmounted
by similar square kiosks.
Inside the gateway is the vast courtyard of the mosque. lt
measures 530 feet square and is flanked all round by a wall of
eighty cloisters. A change in level defines the two parts of the
courtyard. The lower level is called the hna, where funeral

4 26 75
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425 [ prayers may be offered, and this also contains the ablution
4 zo 1sar1.i?aa1iiMa.iqm?, 1.anm.? Barred tank. The upper part is further divided into three areas, with
the central area a step higher than the areas on either side. The
m?l'?f Mm], {mj Us Mm mmmm lm original floor ofthe courtyard as well as the main prayer chain-
,,,.,c,,,,,m 0/ ,,,0wm,,,,m,[,,,,,dI,,,,,,,_ ber was paved in small bricks laid on edge, making a pattern of
ima: wlulu r/we rm the prayer e/mmbrr musallnhs or prayer mats. The surface water was carried by an
?""?""???>??"??" elaborate drainage system under the courtyard floor into the
River which flowed along the northern enclosure wall.
Raised above the courtyard in the centre of the west side is the
main prayer chamber, about 275 feet in length and 85 feet deep.
The surface of the red sandstone facade is treated in a similar
fashion to the entrance gateway but with a more liberal use of
white marble. The tall central arch rises past the general roof
line and is framed in a border with a chain-like geometric design
in white marble; the spandrills are filled with a flowing white
marble floral design in relief. This high vault is flanked by five
smaller arched openings on each side. The corners of the build-
ing are marked by four sturdy ininarets with projecting plat-
forms, surmounted by domed kiosks with projecting eaves. The
parapet is formed by a horizontal row of merlons shaped liked
broad leaves resembling naga (serpent) hoods.
Behind the high central arch is a rectangular recessed forecourt
with a half domed vault above. Directly beyond it lies the
central square hall, while on either side stretch out long halls or

76 _ loggias. Parallel with the loggias and on either side of the 427 Badrhahf M???1~?V Lame. Main
central hall are two wide wings, Over the middle bay of each ??"'""" E{?"'"??d O" " mg" "[?M?'"?*
, , . the mosque is approached pom the our!
wing and over the central hall are three high domes of white
marble which tower above the roof of the prayer chamber. All
three are double domes with the outer domes raised on cylin-
drical drums, constricted at the necks and crowned by inverted
lotus?like finials with gilded pinnacles. The rectangular bays
between the domes are roofed with domical vaults with concave
margins called qulamdani, and with central ribs. The marble
and stone floor and much of the fresco work in the ceiling is
later repair work.




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