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Pakistan - History

2 Million years ago Oldest Homosapiens lived here from 5 - 2 million years ago. Many articles of stone age are found from different Archeological sites and are displayed at different museums of Pakistan.
7000 BC 3500 BC Village culture of Mahar Garh was developed. The site of Mahargarh reveals that people were cultivating crops on rain dependent lands. They were making excellent Quality of ceramics from terracotta. Some figurines of women have been found which are beautifully decorated and are displayed at various museums of Pakistan
3500 BC 3000 BC Kot D Gian Culture . After the Mahargarh people moved eastward for better alluvial land and in search of a place less vulnerable of the dangers of river. They built fortified villages with mud & stone houses. They built tools of metal and were more learnt in the making of ceramics.
3300 BC 1700 BC The people left the small villages and built a big city with all the civic facilities and planning. Emergence of prosperous Indus civilization . Moen Jo Daro was one of the main cities of this most advanced civilization of the world There are buildings made of baked bricks a rich treasure of ceramics covered drainage, grid system of the streets are few of the things of Indus civilization you can witness.
1700 BC Indus civilization was buried in time and Aryans arrive. There is no factual reason how Indus civilization was destroyed but it was certainly missing from the records after 1700BC
1200 BC Earliest hyms of Ragveda were written in the Indus valley (Pakistan) ragveda is the oldest writings
1000 BC 600 BC Post Indus civilization culture decline in art and architecture is seen. There are numerous un excavated sites of this period in Pakistan.
516 BC 486 BC The Achiminidians of Persia ruled the Northern part as the eastern most province of Persia ( Gandhara ) King Darius made a map of the world and described the land beyond Indus as Deserta enconita (Unknown Desert) . Taxila the famous archeological site was established as the Capital of Gandhara
326 BC Alexander the great entered through Khyber pass and Chitral conquered the Kabul valley. The king of Taxila submitted before the Alexander and the whole region was conquered by Alexander. From the south of Indus he continued to Iran via Baluchistan desert (In Pakistan)
324 BC Land was governed by Philip one of the men of Alexander who was later assassinated ; Eudaamus was took his place as the ruler.
323 BC Alexander dies, the country remains in the hands of Eudamus
317 BC Chandragupta the founder of Maurya empire takes over Punjab.
208 BC 274 BC Chandragupta dies Asoka then Governor of Taxila accesses and unites the small kingdoms.
262 BC Asoka is impressed with a Buddhist monk and accepts Buddhism as his religion. The Ashes of Buddha are collected and are distributed into 8 different Stupas. Asoka propagates the teachings of Buddha and develops new rules for the religion.
250 BC Foundation of Bactria & Parthia Kingdoms in Afghanistan & North of Iran , by the greeks
232 BC Death of Asoka the Maurya empire is badly disturbed and eventually breaks into small kingdoms.
189 BC Bactrians take over Gandhara followed by Maurian descendents and later Greeks
90 BC Sakas Parthians from central Asia after conquering Iran, Bactria etc take over Taxila
40 AD Visit of St. Thomas at Taxila his cathedral is still alive in Taxila.
60 AD Kushans from central Asia take over Gandhara and propagate Buddhism Gandhara art is patronized and reaches at its peak
300 AD Kushans are slowly replaces by Sassanians from Iran
400 AD Kidar Kushans unite the country and take hold
455 AD White Huns invade Gandhara and are converted to Hinduism They Destroy all Buddhist Monasteries Stupas and did mass killing. Buddhism declines
565 AD Sassanians & Turks overthrow Huns Buddhism could not recover but emerges in China
602 Huan Tsang travels in the northeran Pakistan & describes the state of buddhisam. Buddhisam falls
600-700 Turks Shahis in North and Hindu Rajas in the south ruling as smaller states.
711 AD Mohammed Bin Qasim (First Muslim ) Conquers The south eastern par of Sindh Banbhore and later many cities in Sindh & Southern Punjab are conquered
870AD Hindu Shahi from central Asia arrive .
1001-26 Mahmood of Ghazni came Islam becomes the state religion and a lot of population is converted to Islam.
1034 Local dynasties rule the In Sindh Sumrah rule until 1337
1150 AD Ghourids replace Ghaznavis
1200 AD The consolidation of Muslim Sultanate in North India
1221 AD Ghengis Khan invades and takes over Punjab from Muslims
1337 AD Sammahs overthrow Sumrahs in Sindh
1398-1409 Temurlane of Uzbekistan arrives via Khyber pass
1400 ++ Decline of the Delhi Sultanate. Separation into small kingdoms. Founding of the Sikh religion
1506 AD Babur, the first Moghul arrives after conquering central Asia & Afghanistan
1524 AD Shah Beg Arghun Rules Sindh Local Rinds also help to overthrow Sammahs
1526 AD Babur ( Moghul) Overthrown the last Sultan of Delhi. India is reunited under the banner of Moghul empire
1530-56 AD Sher Shah Suri attacks the Moghul empire and puts Emperor Humayoon Son of Babur in Exile in Persia
1545 AD Death of Sher Shah Suri. Tarkhans take over Sindh Thatta is the capital
1556-1605 AD Akbar the Great son of Humayoon is the emperor Moghul empire is at boom
1627-1658 Shah Jehan the greatest patron of architecture becomes the emperor.Taj Mahal , Lahore fort's Nolakha Mahal Shahjehan Mosque and many other wonderful buildings wee built
1658-1707 Aurangzeb Alamgir becomes the emperor. Sikhs organize themselves as a warrior tribe
1736 AD Hyderabad becomes the capital of Sindh and Kalhoras rule it
1739 AD Nadir Shah of Persia Invades
1747-1773 Ahmed Shah Durrani founds Kingdom of Afghanistan. Some territories of The Subcontinent Including NWFP , Kashmir & Punjab
1760-1830s Sikhs become the dominant in Punjab . Ruling from Lahore
1789 AD Talpurs Mirs Rule Sindh From Hyderabad
1799-1839 Ranjit Singh Rules Punjab and conquers Peshawar valley
1843 AD British annex Sindh Karachi is taken by Lord Napair. First British Afghan War
1845-1846 First British Sikh War
1848-1849 British take Punjab from Sikhs in the second Sikh war. A big part of India is under British
1857 First War of Independence or Mutiny as called by the British
1876 Mohammed Ali Jinnah Founder of Pakistan born in Karachi
1887 Baluchistan is also taken by the British
1889 Gilgit Agency made by the British in Gilgit
1891 Hunza & Nagar valleys also become part of British empire
1906 All India Muslim was founded
1930 Allama Iqbal awakens Muslims with his poetry and suggests creation of a separate Muslim country
1940 Muslim League under the Leadership of Jinnah passes the resolution of Pakistan in Lahore
1947 6th June Referendum is held In India by the British 14th August India is divided into two and British leave. Quid e Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah becomes the first governor General of Pakistan.
1948 Demise of Jinnah First War between Pakistan & India over Kashmir & Gilgit agency
1949 UN sponsors cease-fire in Kashmir
1958 First Marshal Law (Military Government ) of Ayub Khan
1965 2nd India Pakistan war UN declares cease-fire
1969 General Yahya Khan becomes the Leader of Pakistan
1971 3rd India Pakistan war results the break of Bangladesh which becomes a separate country.
1970-1977 Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto governs the country
1977 Gen. Ziaaul Haq takes over the Country as the Marshal Law administrator
1985 Non Party Elections in Pakistan Mohammed Khan Junejo becomes the Prime Minister
1988 17th August Gen. Zia Ul Haq killed in a Plane crash. Party based Elections held Banazir Bhutto becomes the prime minister
1990 Banazir dismissed from office New Elections held and Nawaz Sharief becomes the prime minister
1992 Nawaz Sharief's resigns and Banazir takes over in the new elections
1995 Banazir was dismissed again and Nawaz Sharief takes the office in the new elections & Continues to rule
1999 Musharaf the then Chief of Army Staff coups the Nawaz Sharief Government and Musharaf becomes the president of Pakistan
2002 General Elections hold by the CEO General Musharraf a faction of Pakistan Muslim league wins and Mr. Jamali becomes the Prime minister of Pakistan
2004 Prime minister Mr. Jamali  resigns and Mr. Chaudhry becomes interim prime minister for 3 months and Mr. Shoukat Aziz became the Prime minister of Pakistan.
2004 - 2007 Shoukat Aziz was selected by the parliament as the prime minister
2007 Benazir Bhuto was assassinated by a gunfire
2008 New Elections were held and Pakistan peoples won the elections.

Pakistan the Indus land article by Prof: Ahmed Hassan Dani.

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