Essentials of a contract
The general law of
contract in Pakistan is contained in the Contract Act 1872. English decision's (where
relevant) are also cited in the courts. The Act defines "contract" as an
agreement enforceable by law. The essentials of a (valid) contract are:
intention to create a contract;
capacity to enter into a contract;
consent of the parties;
object of the agreement;
not essential for the validity of a contract, except where a specific statutory provision
requires writing. An arbitration clause must be in writing.
It is a
essential ingredient of a contract, that there must be a offer and its acceptnce. If there
is no offer, there is no contact, because there is no meeting of minds. Again, if there is
an offer by one party, but it is not accepted by the other party or if the ostensible
acceptance of the offer is defective, then also, there is no agreement and therefore no
propositions may appear to be elementary. A large bulk of commercial litigation, however,
requires the parties to deal with the basic questions, which are :
there has there been an offer at all in the particular case, or whether there is something
less than an offer;
there is an acceptance; whether it is in the proper form;
there has been an acceptance of the offer;
the acceptance has been communicated to the offeror.
(or a "proposal") is not defined by statute. It is generally understood as
denoting the expression, by words or conduct, of a willingness to enter into a legally
binding contract as soon as it has been accepted, usually, by a return promise or an act
on the part of the person (the offeree), to whom it is so addressed.
acceptance, in relation to an offer, is a final and unqualified expression of assent to
the terms of the offer.
followed by acceptance, is an "agreement", if an agreement is enforceable by
law, it is a "contract".
and to whom
must be made by a person legally competent to contract or on his behalf, by someone
authorised by him to make the offer. It is usually made to a person (or to a number of
persons), but it can be made to the entire world, as happened in Carlill v. Carbolic-Smoke
Ball. Co., [(1893) 1 QB 256: (1881-94) All ER 127]. In that case, the defendants
(manufacturers of medicinal smoke balls) promised to pay £100 to anyone who, after having
bought and used their smoke balls, caught influenza. Plaintiff did so and caught
influenza. Plaintiff was held entitled to recover. It was no defence that there was no
particular individual to whom the announcement was addressed. Such contracts are sometimes
called "unilateral contracts" not a very happy term, because a contract
can never be "unilateral". There must be two parties. It is really a case of
innumerable offers, made to all potential readers of the announcement.
which are not offers
statement of intention is not an offer. A statement must be made with the intention that
it will be accepted and will constitute a binding contract. Following are not offers:
Statement made during negotiation, without indicating that the maker intends to be bound
without further negotiation.
statement which invites the other party to make an offer (e.g., a notice inviting
Statement of lowest price. [Harvey v. Facey, (1893) A.C. 552]. It is regarded as an
invitation to make offers. [Re Webster (1975) 132 CLR 270 (Australia)].
of goods in a ship with price tags. (It is merely an invitation to make an offer, so that
the trader may not accept the offer, if the price is incorrectly marked. [Fisher v. Bell,
(1960) 3 All ER 731].
to be bound
intention to be bound is highlighted in Gibson v. Manchester City Council, [(1979) 1 All
ER 192]. In 1970, M adopted a policy of selling council houses to tenants. In February,
1971, the City Treasurer wrote to G, stating that council "may be prepared to sell
the house to you at £2,180 (freehold)". The letter asked G to make a formal
application. This he did, and the council took the house off the list of
council-maintained properties. Before the completion of the normal process of preparation
and exchange of contracts when property is sold, control of the council changed hands and
the policy of selling council houses was reversed. The new council decided only to
complete those transactions where exchange of contracts had already taken place. In the UK
Court of Appeal, it was held (by a majority) that a contract had been made between G and
M. Lord Denning suggested that "there is no need to look for strict offer and
acceptance" in every case; a price had been agreed and the parties intended to carry
through the sale. However, the house of Lords held that the February letter was (at the
most) an "invitation" of treat. G's application was an offer and not an
acceptance. (Informal agreements for the sale of houses are not likely to be held as
binding contracts, because, otherwise, buyers may find themselves committed before
securing mortgage finance).
parties clearly indicate that their statements or documents do not constitute offers,
e.g., estate agents."These particulars do not form, nor constitute any part of an
offer, or a contract, for sale". Until an offer is accepted, it creates no legal
rights and it may be terminated at any time in a variety of ways. Principal modes of
termination of an offer are:
(a) by the
offeror revoking (or withdrawing) it before acceptance;
(b) by the
offeree rejecting the offer outright or by making a counter-offer;
lapse of time, if the offer is stated to be open only for a fixed time;
Northern Rly. Co. Ltd. v. Witham, [(1873) LR 9 CP 16]. Great Northern Railway advertised
for tenders for the supply of such stores as they might require for one year. W submitted
a tender to supply the stores in such quantities as Great Northern Railway might order
from time to time and his tender was accepted. Orders were given for some time, but
eventually was given an order which he refused to carry out. It was held that W was in
breach. A tender of this kind was a standing offer which was converted into a series of
contracts as Great Northern Railway made their orders. W might revoke his offer for the
remainder of the period covered, but must supply the goods already ordered. Revocation of
an offer is effective, only when communicated to the offeree.
of an offer must be absolute and must correspond with the terms of the offer. This rule a
key constituent of the basic premise, does not always accord with the realities of complex
business contract negotiations today. Such negotiations may indeed proceed through a
series of proposals, counter-proposals, withdrawals, variations and qualifications, before
agreement (or otherwise) is reached. When parties carry on lengthy negotiations, it may be
hard to say exactly when an offer has been made and acceptance. Butler Machine Tool Co.
Ltd. v. The Ex Cello Corp. (Eng) Ltd. (1979) 1 WLR 401]. the court must look at the entire
correspondance to decide whether an apparently unqualified acceptance did, in fact,
conclude the agreement.
conditional offer, if accepted, must be accepted along with all the conditions.
regard to international agreements governed by the U.N. Convention on contracts for
international sale of goods, there is a slight qualifications, in as much as, article 19
of the Vienna Convention provides that non material variations between offer and
acceptance do not make a difference.
As a rule,
An agreement without "consideration" is void. The Act contract defines
"consideration" as follows:
at the desire of the promisor, the promisee or any other person has done or abstained from
doing, or does or abstains from doing, or promises to do or abstains from doing,
something, such act, abstinence, or promise is called a consideration for the
promise to give a donation, either orally or in writing, is not enforceable. Settlement of
bona fide but doubtful claims involves a bargain between the contracting parties and is,
therefore, based on consideration. Money is not the only form of consideration. A
consideration may consist sometimes in the doing of a requested act, and sometimes in the
making of a promise by the offeree. Forbearance to sue at the promisor's desire
constitutes good consideration.
is not required for a promise to compensate, wholly or in part, a person who has already
voluntarily done something for the promisor or something which the promisor was legally
compellable to do. It is also not required for a written and signed promise by the debtor
(or his duly authorised agent) to pay a time-barred debt to the creditor.
of the parties
A person is
competent to contract if, at the time of making it, he is of sound mind, major and not
disqualified from contracting under law.
has not attained the age of 18 years (or being under a court of wards, has not attained
the age of 21 years), he cannot contract. Agreements made by minors are void. Minors
cannot, on attaining majority, ratify agreements entered into during their minority. But
if a minor makes a fraudulent misrepresentation about his age and obtains a loan, he can
be required (at the discretion of the court) to refund it or to make compensation for
unadjudged lunatic can enter into a valid contract during lucid intervals.
corporation can contract subject to limits imposed by its documents of
consent of a party to a transaction is procured by coercion, undue influence, fraud or
misrepresentation, the agreement is voidable at the option of the party whose consent was
so procured. Cases of undue influence arise where the transaction is ex facie
unconscionable and one party was in a position to dominate the will of the other. Where
parties are bound by a fiduciary relationship, (as in the case of father and son, doctor
and patient, master and servant, advocate and client), the law protects the weaker party,
throwing on the other party the burden of proving that no undue influence was
mistake in respect of material facts in the formation of a contract renders the agreement
void. A unilateral mistake, however, does not render an agreement void. Nor does a mistake
of law affect its validity.
agreement whose consideration or object is unlawful, is void. The consideration or object
of an agreement is unlawful, if it is forbidden by law or it would defeat the provisions
of any law or is fraudulent, or involves or implies injury to the person or property of
another or the court regards it as immoral or opposed to public policy.
A party to
an illegal agreement who has advanced money under it to the other party is entitled to
recover it, if the illegal purpose has not been partly or wholly carried out.
in restraint of marriage, trade and legal proceedings are void. The seller of the
good-will of a business may, however, validly agree with the buyer to restrain from
carrying on a similar business within specified local limits, provided the limits are
bound by the contract
bind the promisors and in case of death of promisor (before performance) their legal
representatives, unless there is contract to the contrary, or the nature of the contract
is such that it depends upon the personal qualifications of any party.
special provisions dealing with the case where time is the essence of contract. In
commercial contracts, it is better to provide specifically that time is of the essence. A
contract is validly discharged by faithful performance, by release or remission by the
promisee, by "frustration" (under law) or by "Novation" (by
occurs when unexpected developments subsequent to the making of the contracts render
performance impossible. Novation occurs when the old agreement is replaced by a new
events and frustration
subsequent to the making of the contract, some event happens, which the parties could not
control so that the agreement cannot be performed, the contract is said to be
"frustrated"because the contract then becomes impossible of performance.
Frustration may occur by a change in the law, destruction of the subject-matter,
supervening incapacity of the contracting party to perform the contract or fundamental
change in circumstances after the contract is made. Mere strike, lock-out in the factory,
rise in price of the contracted goods or other commercial difficulties do not, as such,
render the contract "impossible" of performance.
of the permit system by statute does not absolve the promisor from supplying the goods. He
must make reasonable efforts to procure the permit to fulfill his agreement. Change in
market conditions also does not justify a supplier in demanding a price higher than that
stipulated, unless there is an "escalation" clause.
leads to automatic termination of the contract, and exempts the parties from performance
or further performance of the contract without rendering any of them liable for damages.
Where, however, any party has received any benefit under the agreement, he must restore it
or make compensation for it to the other party.
for breach of contract
principal remedies for breach of contract are:
specific performance of the contract; and
contract has been broken, the party who suffers by such breach is entitled to receive,
from the party who has broken the contract, compensation for any loss or damage caused to
him thereby, being loss or damages which naturally arose in the usual course of things
from such breach or which the parties knew, when they made the contract, to be likely to
result from the breach of it.
compensation is not to be given for any remote and indirect loss of damage sustained by
reason of the breach.
principle applies for determining damages for breach of an obligation arising from
estimating the loss or damage arising from a breach of contract, the means which existed
of remedying the inconvenience caused by the non-performance of the contract must be taken
into account. This is referred to, as the duty to mitigate.
stipulation for increased interest from the date of default may be regarded as a
stipulation by "way of penalty", if the amount is excessive. The court is
empowered to reduce it to an amount reasonable in the circumstances.
performance and injunctions
special cases dealt with in the Specific Relief Act, the court may direct against the
party in default "specific performance" of the contract, that is to say, the
party may be directed to perform the very obligation which he has undertaken, by the
contract. This relief is awarded only in exceptional cases.
also deals with permanent injunctions. Temporary injunctions are governed by the
provisions of order of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.